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Antisocial personality disorder
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. Individuals with ASPD may exhibit impulsive, aggressive, deceitful, or reckless behaviours that harm themselves or others. They may also lack empathy, remorse, or guilt for their actions. ASPD is one of the most studied and controversial personality disorders in the field of psychology. In this article, we will review the current Causes, diagnosis and treatment of ASPD, as well as the challenges and controversies that surround this disorder.
What is antisocial personality disorder?
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition that affects how a person thinks, feels, and relates to others and society. People with ASPD have a persistent pattern of disregard for or violation of the rights of others. They may behave in ways that are impulsive, irresponsible, deceitful, manipulative, aggressive, or violent. They may also lack empathy, remorse, or guilt for their actions. ASPD can cause significant problems in personal, social, and occupational functioning.
The prevalence of ASPD varies depending on the source and the criteria used for diagnosis. According to the DSM-IV, the prevalence of ASPD in the United States population is estimated between about 3% of adult males and 1% of adult females. However, these figures are based on older diagnostic criteria and may not reflect the current situation. According to the NHS, there are no meaningful differences between ethnic groups in the percentage of people who screened positive for any personality disorder in England in 2014. However, these figures should not be used as evidence of real differences in the population as a whole, as the sample sizes were too small to draw reliable conclusions. According to Wikipedia, the prevalence of ASPD peaks in people aged 24 to 44 years old, and often decreases in people aged 45 to 64 years. ASPD is more common in males than females (6:1), and there is a strong heritable component.
Possible causes of ASPD
The exact causes of ASPD are not fully understood, but several factors may contribute to its development. Some possible causes are:
- Genetic factors: Some studies suggest that ASPD may run in families, and that some genes may make people more vulnerable to developing personality disorders.
- Environmental factors: People with ASPD often have a history of childhood abuse, neglect, instability, or violence. These adverse experiences may affect their brain development and impair their ability to regulate emotions, form attachments, and learn from consequences.
- Neurobiological factors: There may be differences in the brain structure and function of people with ASPD, especially in the areas related to impulse control, Emotional regulation, moral reasoning, and Social cognition.
ASPD is a complex and challenging condition that requires professional diagnosis and treatment. People with ASPD may benefit from psychotherapy, medication, and family or social support. However, they may also resist or refuse treatment, or have difficulty adhering to it. Therefore, early intervention and prevention strategies are important to reduce the risk of ASPD and its negative consequences.
Diagnosis of ASPD
ASPD is diagnosed based on the presence of certain criteria, such as a history of conduct disorder before age 15, repeated violation of Social norms or laws, lack of concern for the consequences of one’s behaviour, and failure to honour financial or other obligations. ASPD is more common in men than in women, and it may have genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its development. Some risk factors include having a family history of ASPD, experiencing child abuse or neglect, having an unstable or chaotic family life, or having other mental health conditions.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the diagnostic criteria for ASPD are:
- Failure to conform to Social norms regarding lawful behaviours, as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
- Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
- Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead.
- Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
- Reckless disregard for the safety of self or others.
- Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behaviour or honour financial obligations.
- Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.
Similarities with other mental health problems
ASPD can be compared and contrasted with other mental health conditions that also involve difficulties in interpersonal relationships, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD).
One similarity among these conditions is that they all have a genetic component, Meaning that they may run in families or be influenced by biological factors. Another similarity is that they all have environmental triggers, such as childhood abuse, neglect, or Trauma, that may contribute to their development.
However, there are also significant differences among these conditions. For example, people with ASPD tend to be manipulative, deceitful, and reckless, while people with BPD tend to be emotionally unstable, insecure, and fearful of abandonment. People with NPD tend to have an inflated Sense of self-importance, entitlement, and superiority, while people with AVPD tend to have low Self-esteem, social Anxiety, and avoidance of intimacy.
Another difference is how these conditions affect the ability to empathize with others. People with ASPD have a limited capacity for empathy and often do not Care about the feelings or consequences of their actions on others. People with BPD have a distorted sense of empathy and often experience intense and fluctuating emotions that interfere with their ability to understand others’ perspectives. Those with NPD have a lack of empathy and often exploit or disregard others’ needs or feelings to boost their own Ego. People with AVPD have a hypersensitivity to empathy and often avoid social situations or relationships for fear of being rejected or criticized.
Attachment theory is a Psychological framework that explains how humans form emotional bonds with others. According to this theory, there are four main types of attachment styles: secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant, and fearful-avoidant.
People with secure attachment have a positive view of themselves and others and can form healthy and satisfying relationships. People with anxious-preoccupied attachment have a negative view of themselves and a positive view of others and are often clingy, needy, and dependent on others for validation. Those with dismissive-avoidant attachment have a positive view of themselves and a negative view of others and are often distant, detached, and self-reliant. People with fearful-avoidant attachment have a negative view of themselves and others and are often conflicted, distrustful, and avoidant of intimacy.
Attachment theory may help explain some of the differences among the mental health conditions mentioned above. For instance, people with ASPD may have a dismissive-avoidant attachment style that makes them indifferent or hostile to others’ feelings or needs. People with BPD may have an anxious-preoccupied attachment style that makes them desperate for attention or affection from others. People with NPD may have a dismissive-avoidant attachment style that makes them arrogant or contemptuous of others’ opinions or emotions. Those with AVPD may have a fearful-avoidant attachment style that makes them wary or fearful of closeness or rejection from others.
Treating antisocial personality disorder
ASPD is a challenging condition to treat, as people with ASPD may not seek help on their own or may not cooperate with treatment. However, some treatment options may include psychotherapy, medication, family Counselling, or behavioural therapy. The goal of treatment is to help people with ASPD learn to manage their emotions, impulses, and behaviours, and to strengthen their relationships and social skills. Treatment may also address any co-occurring problems, such as substance abuse, Depression, or Anxiety. ASPD is a lifelong condition that may improve over time with treatment and ageing.
Whilst there is no specific treatment for ASPD, some interventions may help reduce the severity of the symptoms and the impact of the disorder on the person’s life. These interventions include:
- Talk therapy: This is a form of psychotherapy that involves talking to a trained Therapist about one’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Talk therapy may help people with ASPD understand the causes and consequences of their actions, develop empathy and remorse, cope with Negative emotions, and strengthen their social skills. Such therapy may also address any comorbid disorders, such as Depression, Anxiety, or substance use disorders. Talk therapy may be delivered individually or in groups, depending on the person’s needs and preferences.
- Anger and violence management: This is a type of intervention that aims to help people with ASPD control their impulses, express their anger in constructive ways, and avoid aggressive or violent behaviour. Anger and violence management may involve techniques such as relaxation, Cognitive restructuring, problem-solving, assertiveness training, and conflict resolution.
- Medication: There is no medication that can cure ASPD, but some drugs may help reduce some of the symptoms or treat comorbid conditions. For example, antidepressants may help with mood swings or irritability, Antipsychotics may help with Paranoia or aggression, and mood stabilisers may help with Impulsivity or Emotional instability. However, medication should be used with caution and under close supervision, as people with ASPD may misuse or abuse drugs or have adverse reactions to them.
The effectiveness of these interventions for ASPD is limited by several factors, such as the person’s willingness to participate in treatment, their level of Insight and motivation for change, their adherence to the treatment plan, and the availability and quality of the services. Therefore, treatment for ASPD should be tailored to each person’s situation and needs, and delivered by experienced and qualified professionals who can establish a trusting and respectful relationship with the person.
Challenges and controversies
ASPD is one of the most challenging and controversial disorders in the field of psychiatry, for several reasons.
First, the diagnosis of ASPD is based on behavioural criteria that are often subjective and difficult to measure. There is no definitive test or biomarker that can confirm the presence or absence of ASPD, and the reliability and validity of the diagnostic tools are questionable. Moreover, the criteria for ASPD have changed over time, reflecting different conceptualizations and perspectives on the disorder. For example, the current DSM-5 definition of ASPD requires evidence of conduct disorder before the age of 15, whereas the previous DSM-IV definition did not. Some critics argue that the DSM-5 criteria are too narrow and exclude many people who have antisocial traits but do not meet the full threshold for ASPD.
Second, the aetiology and pathophysiology of ASPD are not well understood. There is evidence that genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors may contribute to the development of ASPD, but the exact mechanisms and interactions are unclear. Some researchers suggest that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain structure and function, especially in regions involved in emotion regulation, impulse control, and Social cognition. However, these findings are inconsistent or conclusive, and may reflect the effects of other factors such as substance abuse, Trauma, or comorbid disorders. Furthermore, some studies indicate that ASPD is influenced by social and cultural factors, such as family dynamics, peer influences, gender roles, and legal systems. These factors may shape the expression and perception of antisocial behaviours in different contexts and cultures.
Third, the treatment and prognosis of ASPD are uncertain and controversial. There is no established cure or effective treatment for ASPD, and many people with ASPD do not seek or comply with treatment. The main goals of treatment are to reduce antisocial behaviours, improve social functioning, and prevent harm to self or others. However, there is limited evidence to support the efficacy and safety of various interventions for ASPD, such as psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, or neuromodulation. Moreover, some ethical and legal issues may arise when treating people with ASPD, such as informed consent, coercion, confidentiality, and responsibility. Additionally, some studies suggest that ASPD may remit or attenuate with age, but the long-term outcomes and predictors of change are unclear.
In summary, ASPD is a complex and multifaceted disorder that poses significant challenges and controversies for researchers, clinicians, and society. More research is needed to improve the understanding and management of ASPD, and to address the stigma and discrimination that people with ASPD may face.
Self-transcendence for antisocial personality disorder
Self-transcendence is a psychological construct that refers to the ability to go beyond one’s Ego and personal concerns, and to connect with a higher Purpose, Meaning, or value in life. It has been associated with various positive outcomes, such as wellbeing, Altruism, Spirituality, and creativity. However, Self-transcendence may also have implications for the treatment of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD).
One of the main challenges in treating ASPD is the low motivation and resistance to change that many individuals with ASPD exhibit. Therefore, there is a need for novel approaches that can enhance the readiness and willingness of individuals with ASPD to engage in treatment and modify their maladaptive behaviours.
One such approach that has received increasing attention recently is Self-transcendence. Self-transcendence has been shown to facilitate change processes in various clinical populations, such as substance use disorders, Depression, Anxiety, and Post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the role of Self-transcendence in ASPD has been largely overlooked in the literature.
In the following paragraphs, we aim to help fill this gap by proposing a conceptual model as to how Self-transcendence could be used to treat ASPD.
How Self-transcendence relates to other relevant constructs, such as Self-awareness, Self-regulation, moral development, and Spirituality
Self-awareness is the capacity to reflect on one’s own thoughts, feelings, and actions, and to recognize how they affect oneself and others. Self-awareness is essential for Self-transcendence, as it enables one to identify one’s strengths and weaknesses, one’s values and goals, and one’s sources of Meaning and fulfilment. It also facilitates Self-regulation, which is the ability to control one’s impulses, emotions, and behaviours in accordance with one’s standards and objectives. Self-regulation helps one to overcome selfish tendencies and to act harmonizing with one’s higher aspirations.
Moral development is the process of acquiring and applying ethical principles and values in one’s life. Moral development is influenced by various factors, such as Cognitive abilities, social interactions, cultural norms, and personal experiences. This contributes to Self-transcendence, as it fosters a sense of responsibility, justice, and Compassion for others. Moral development also promotes Spirituality, which is the experience of Connection with a transcendent reality that transcends the material world. Spirituality can take various forms, such as religious beliefs, Mystical experiences, or secular humanism. Spirituality enhances Self-transcendence, as it provides a framework for understanding the ultimate Meaning and Purpose of life.
Another domain that Self-transcendence relates to is Self-regulation, which is the process of controlling one’s thoughts, emotions, and actions to achieve personal and social goals. Self-regulation involves the use of Cognitive strategies, such as planning, monitoring, and evaluating, as well as motivational factors, such as Self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and feedback. Self-transcendence can enhance Self-regulation by providing a broader Perspective and a stronger motivation for pursuing one’s goals, especially when they are aligned with one’s values and Purpose. Self-transcendence can also help overcome self-regulatory failures, such as procrastination, Impulsivity, and self-sabotage, by fostering a sense of responsibility and accountability to oneself and others.
One further domain that Self-transcendence relates to is Spirituality, which is a multifaceted construct that encompasses one’s beliefs, experiences, and practices related to the sacred or the transcendent. Spirituality can be expressed in various forms, such as religious affiliation, spiritual identity, spiritual coping, spiritual well-being, and Spiritual growth. Self-transcendence can facilitate Spirituality by enabling one to experience a deeper Connection with The divine or the ultimate reality, as well as a sense of Awe, Gratitude, and reverence. Self-transcendence can also foster Spirituality by promoting a more inclusive and Compassionate attitude toward others and the environment, as well as a more Authentic and integrated Sense of self.
In conclusion, Self-transcendence is a valuable construct that can enrich one’s psychological and spiritual functioning by enhancing one’s Self-awareness, moral functioning, Self-regulation and Spirituality. Self-transcendence can help one achieve a more balanced and Harmonious state of being, in which one can transcend one’s Ego and connect with Something greater than oneself.
How individuals with ASPD tend to have low levels of Self-transcendence, which may contribute to their antisocial behaviour and lack of empathy.
Low levels of Self-transcendence may contribute to the antisocial behaviour and lack of empathy of individuals with ASPD, as they are more likely to focus on their own interests and needs, and view others as objects or obstacles. They may also have a distorted sense of reality, and fail to recognize the consequences of their actions on themselves and others. Furthermore, low levels of Self-transcendence may impair their ability to cope with Stress, frustration, and Negative emotions, and lead them to resort to aggression, violence, or substance abuse.
Increasing levels of Self-transcendence in individuals with ASPD may have beneficial effects on their behaviour and well-being, as well as on their social Integration. Higher levels of Self-transcendence may foster a sense of belonging and responsibility towards others, and enhance their capacity for empathy and Compassion. They may also help them to develop a more realistic and positive view of themselves and the world, and to find Meaning and value in their lives. Additionally, higher levels of Self-transcendence may increase their resilience and coping skills, and reduce their Impulsivity and risk-taking tendencies.
In conclusion, Self-transcendence is a personality trait that may play a significant role in the development and treatment of ASPD. Individuals with ASPD tend to have low levels of Self-transcendence, which may contribute to their antisocial behaviour and lack of empathy. Increasing levels of Self-transcendence in such individuals would tend to reduce their antisocial behaviour and engender their Harmonious inclusion into society.
Inducing self-transcendent states may have beneficial effects on individuals with ASPD by enhancing their Self-awareness, empathy, Perspective-taking, and moral reasoning.
One possible way to address the challenges of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is to induce self-transcendent states in individuals with this condition. Self-transcendent states can be induced by various means, such as meditation, mindfulness, or nature exposure. These methods may have beneficial effects on individuals with ASPD by enhancing their Self-awareness, empathy, Perspective-taking, and moral reasoning.
Self-awareness is the ability to recognize one’s own thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviours. Individuals with ASPD often lack Self-awareness and tend to rationalize or deny their antisocial actions. By inducing Self-transcendence, they may be able to access a more objective and honest view of themselves and their impact on others. This may help them to acknowledge their problems and seek help.
Empathy is the ability to understand and share the emotions of others. Individuals with ASPD often lack empathy and tend to disregard or exploit the feelings of others. By inducing Self-transcendence, they may be able to feel more Compassion and Care for others. This may help them to reduce their aggression and violence and to strengthen their relationships.
Perspective-taking is the ability to adopt the point of view of others. Individuals with ASPD often lack Perspective-taking and tend to be egocentric and narcissistic. By inducing Self-transcendence, they may be able to appreciate the Diversity and complexity of human experiences. This may help them to respect and cooperate with others.
Moral reasoning is the ability to apply ethical principles and values to one’s decisions and actions. Individuals with ASPD often lack moral reasoning and tend to violate Social norms and laws. By inducing Self-transcendence, they may be able to develop a more universal and altruistic sense of morality. This may help them to conform to social expectations and to contribute positively to society.
We propose that Self-transcendence could serve as both a motivational enhancer and a therapeutic mechanism for individuals with ASPD. We also highlight the potential challenges and limitations of applying Self-transcendence to ASPD treatment, and provide suggestions for future research directions.
Examples of self-transcendent practices to help with antisocial personality disorder
Some self-transcendent practices may help people with ASPD cope with their symptoms and improve their well-being. These include:
- Meditation: Meditation is a practice of focusing one’s attention on a chosen object, such as the breath, a word, or a sensation, while letting go of other thoughts and distractions. Meditation can help people with ASPD cultivate Awareness of their emotions, thoughts, and impulses, and reduce their reactivity to negative stimuli. Meditation can also enhance Self-regulation, Compassion, and empathy, which are often impaired in people with ASPD.
- Mindfulness: Mindfulness is a state of being present and aware of one’s experiences in the moment, without judging or reacting to them. Mindfulness can be cultivated through meditation, as well as through daily activities such as eating, walking, or listening. Mindfulness can help people with ASPD become more conscious of their actions and consequences, and develop more positive and constructive ways of relating to others.
- Nature: Nature refers to the natural environment and its elements, such as plants, animals, water, and air. Exposure to nature can have various benefits for mental health, such as reducing Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and aggression. Nature can also foster a sense of Awe, wonder, and Gratitude, which can counteract the cynicism and hostility that often accompany ASPD. Nature can also provide opportunities for social interaction and cooperation with others who share a common interest or appreciation for nature.
- Yoga: Yoga is a system of physical exercises, breathing techniques, and meditation that originated in India. Yoga can help people with ASPD improve their physical health, as well as their mental and emotional balance. Yoga can also promote Self-awareness, self-control, and self-acceptance, which are essential for overcoming the negative self-image and low Self-esteem that often plague people with ASPD.
- Creativity: Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or products. Creativity can be expressed through various forms of art, such as music, painting, writing, or dancing. Creativity can help people with ASPD channel their energy and emotions into constructive and meaningful outlets, rather than destructive and harmful ones. Creativity can also enhance self-expression, self-confidence, and Self-esteem, which are often lacking in people with ASPD.
- Self-exploration: Self-exploration is the process of discovering and understanding oneself, including one’s strengths, weaknesses, values, goals, and motivations. Self-exploration can be facilitated by various methods, such as journaling, therapy, coaching, or mentoring. Self-exploration can help people with ASPD gain Insight into their personality traits and patterns of behaviour that contribute to their disorder. Self-exploration can also help people with ASPD identify their needs and desires, and pursue them in healthy and respectful ways.
If you would like to learn more about ASPD, here are some weblinks with URLs for further reading:
Antisocial personality disorder – NHS: This website provides an overview of the signs, causes, effects and treatment options for ASPD in the UK. It also explains the difference between ASPD and psychopathy.
Antisocial personality disorder – Wikipedia: This website gives a comprehensive and detailed description of ASPD, including its history, diagnosis, criteria, subtypes, comorbidity, epidemiology, aetiology, Neurobiology, prevention and management. It also discusses the controversies and debates surrounding the concept of ASPD and its relation to psychopathy and dissocial personality disorder.
Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) – Cleveland Clinic: This website offers a brief and concise summary of ASPD, including its symptoms, causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and outlook. It also provides some tips on how to cope with ASPD or support someone who has it.
What Is Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)? – Verywell Health: This website answers some common questions about ASPD, such as what it is, how it is diagnosed, what causes it, how it is treated and what the prognosis is. It also provides some resources and references for further information.