Wisdom is a complex and multifaceted concept that has been studied by psychologists from various perspectives. According to one influential theory by Baltes and colleagues, Wisdom is “expert knowledge in the fundamental pragmatics of life that permits exceptional Insight, judgment, and advice about complex and uncertain matters.” This definition implies that Wisdom involves not only Cognitive aspects, such as knowledge and experience, but also reflective and Prosocial aspects, such as understanding, tolerance, and Compassion. Wisdom is not the same as intelligence, nor is it automatically acquired with age or experience. Rather, Wisdom is the result of a deliberate and lifelong process of learning from one’s own and others’ experiences, integrating multiple viewpoints, and applying one’s knowledge and values to real-life situations.
Free will is a philosophical concept that refers to the ability of human beings to make decisions or perform actions independently of any prior event or state of the universe. In this article, we will discuss it's meaning and philosophical traditions.